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    Mosquitoes around the home can be reduced significantly by minimizing the amount of standing water available for mosquito breeding. Residents are urged to reduce standing water around the home in a variety of ways.


    The best way is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.This can be accomplished using personal protecting  while outdoors when mosquitoes are present. Treated bed nets should be used sleeping. Mosquito repellent should be used when outdoor.


    Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk of getting malaria. Pregnant women are particularly at risk of malaria. Children under 5 years are at high risk of malaria.


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The Phase 4 agenda in Burkina Faso

The Nouna and Nanoro sites in Burkina Faso are among the seven sites in the four INESS countries which carried out the phase 4 studies on the anti-malarial, eurartesim (DHA Piperaquine).

The Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site is located in a district northwest of Burkina Faso about 300 kms from the capital, Ouagadougou. The area is a dry orchard savannah, populated almost exclusively with subsistence farmers.

Burkina Faso's second HDSS site in Nanoro is located in a rural area in the centre of that country and was established around 2009 to strengthen the rational basis for health-care by providing a platform to generate epidemiological data compliant with international standards. The site's activities are directed at research into drugs and vaccines on diseases of public health significance, with a special focus on malaria.

The recent investigation into the eurartesim drug is just one of the many studies that the two research sites have been involved in over the years.
The Nouna site has, for instance, been committed to providing evidence for better policies and health care interventions. Some of its key publications on malaria include clinical diagnosis of malaria and the risk of chloroquine self-medication in rural health centres in Burkina Faso.

Others are a publication on the safety and efficacy of methylene blue combined with artesunate or amodiaquine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria and one on the efficacy of amodiaquine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young children of rural north-western Burkina Faso.

The site commenced the enrolment of participants for the eurartesim study in 2013. It concluded the enrolment of the nested group for the study in February, 2014 and the main group for the study participants in March of last year.

During recruitment at the site, a total of 1,814 participants gave their consent to participate in the study. This was made up of 1,689 into the main group and 125 into the nested group. One participant was excluded before enrolment, bringing the total number of enrolled participants for the main group to 1,688.

Out of all enrolled participants, 30 were prematurely withdrawn with six from the nested group and 24 from the main group. The main reason for withdrawals was vomiting after re-administration of the drug. A total of seven recruitment facilities were used during the entire study duration in Nouna. As part of the close-up activities to bring the study at the site to an end, final archiving requirements for documents and data used for the trials were discussed. A small room was identified to store all eurartesim documentation and data. The room was equipped with smoke detector, external fire extinguisher and air conditioners.

The Nanoro site also began the eurartesim study in September, 2013. A pre-study site assessment visit was carried out at the centre including a visit by the monitor to ensure that all study protocols were in place and that ground rules for a successful trial was firmly established.

Various activities were also carried out at the site related to issues of protocol. It was supervised by the project monitor to ensure that all study protocols were up to the required standard. The enrolment, laboratory, data management and drug storage facilities planned to be used during the study were visited including two peripheral health centres which were found to be in good condition.

Safety aspects of the study were also discussed and it was apparent during the visit that the laboratory staff at the hospital was well equipped to handle the sample processing for the study.

During the visit to the laboratory, for instance, it was observed that the laboratory documentation for equipment maintenance and calibration were available, up to date and suitably filed.

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