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    Mosquitoes around the home can be reduced significantly by minimizing the amount of standing water available for mosquito breeding. Residents are urged to reduce standing water around the home in a variety of ways.


    The best way is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.This can be accomplished using personal protecting  while outdoors when mosquitoes are present. Treated bed nets should be used sleeping. Mosquito repellent should be used when outdoor.


    Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk of getting malaria. Pregnant women are particularly at risk of malaria. Children under 5 years are at high risk of malaria.


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News from International media

Gates  gives  $168M  for  research  into malaria vaccines
By John Carroll

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is putting up $168 million to fund research into a new   generation  of  malaria vaccines. The initiative is one of a broad range  of  new  efforts  around  the  globe aimed at eradicating malaria by 2015.

At  a  recent  summit  at  the  UN,  donors committed  $3  billion  to  the  war  against malaria. The World Bank and the Global Fund  to  Fight  Aids,  Tuberculosis  and Malaria  is  putting  up  the  lion's  share  of that money, with the British government and the Gates Foundation providing the rest. The donors believe that their efforts can  save  more  than  4  million  lives  over the next seven years.

"We need innovation, new drugs, and the most dramatic thing we need is vaccine," says Gates.

The Gates foundation has donated nearly $1.5 billion to malaria research over the past  8  years.  The  organization  came under scrutiny when WHO malaria chief,  Dr.  Arata  Kochi  accused  the  Foundation of creating funding practices among their network  of  top  malaria  scientists  that caused scientists' research to be linked to those  of  others  in  the  group,  making  it difficult  for  scientists  to  objectively evaluate  each  other's  work.  The Foundation denied that claim.

Dr  Chris  van  Tulleken,  Patron  of  the medical  aid  agency  Merlin,  Honorary Lecturer  at  UCL,  Registrar  in  Infectious Disease  and  Tropical  Medicine  at University  College  Hospital,  and  a  co- presenter  of  the  Channel  4  series  'Medicine Men Go Wild', has called for a  more equitable rights-based approach to  delivering  aid  for  public  health  in
developing countries.

Speaking  at  the  2   annual  lecture  on Malaria  and  Human  Rights  in  London, organised  by  Malaria  Consortium,  a member of the European Alliance against Malaria, Dr van Tulleken highlighted the critical  need  to  ensure  community engagement  and  understanding  when delivering  health  services.  'Unless community  participation  is  ensured'  he argued,  'delivering  health  services  like malaria treatment may have unintended consequences'.

Drawing on experience working in Burma after  Cyclone  Nargis  and  in  Congo  Brazzaville,  Dr  van  Tulleken  highlighted the  key  components  of  a  rights-based approach  to  delivering  aid  for  public health,  emphasising  that  interventions should not only be participatory, but also context-specific,  non-discriminatory,accountable,  accessible  to  the  poorest and of high quality.

“There  is  a  clear  need  to  address  the needs  of  the  individual  while  trying  to  optimize  the  wellbeing  of  communities. We should not impose rights frameworks if they may jeopardize the autonomy  of indigenous peoples, for example - but we should  be  bound  to  inform  those  with whom  we  work  of  their  fundamental rights  and  deliver  care  based  on  our duties and not beneficence” he said.

In his summing up, the Executive Director of Malaria Consortium, and Chairperson for  the  occasion,  Sunil  Mehra  said  that “equality  and  dignity  are  at  the  core  of what our response as health care actors in the developing world should be.”

The lecture was attended by representatives  from  human  rights organizations, academia, media and  development NGOs and the private and public sectors.

Source: Malaria Consortium, UK

As  the  use  of  DDT  to  fight  mosquitoes spreading  Malaria  in  Uganda  begins  to take shape, it is emerging that men born to mothers exposed to lingering amounts of the pesticide might have an increased risk of getting testicular cancer.  This is according to a study published in the  Journal  of  the  National  Cancer Institute,  in  the  USA.  The  cancer  that affects young men in their 20s and 30s is said  to  be  on  the  increase  around  the world. "Because  evidence  suggests  that testicular  germ  cell  tumors  (TGCTs)  are initiated  very  early  in  life,  it  is  possible that exposure to these persistent organic pesticides  during  fetal  life  or  via  breast feeding may increase the risk of TGCT in young men," the findings read in part.

Researchers  examined  blood  samples from  739  men  in  the  U.S.  military  who  had  testicular  cancer  and  915  men  who did  not.  They  found  that  men  with  the highest levels of DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), which is created when the environment or  body  breaks  down  DDT,  were  70  per cent  more  likely  to  develop  testicular cancer  than  those  who  had  the  lowest levels of DDE.

In  the  early  years  of  World  War  II,  DDT was  used  with  great  effect  to  control mosquitoes  spreading  malaria,  typhus, and  other  insect-borne  diseases  among both military and civilian populations. As  a  result  of  their  findings,  the researchers want further examination of the association of pesticides such as DDT  with testiccular cancer in other populations, particularly given that more widespread use is being considered in the developing world.

Usage  of  DDT  was  condemned  by environmentalists leading to its ban. But in  Uganda,  following  approval  from  the National  Environmental  Management  Authority,  the  government  has  re- introduced the chemical and spraying has  kicked  off  in  two  northern  districts  of Apac  and  Oyam.  Where  it  is  being  employed, usage of the chemical is under strict  World  Health  Organisation  guidelines.

Debate  still  rages  over  the  human  toll caused  by  the  deadly  malaria  parasite and  DDT's  potential  long-term  harm  to people's health and the environment.

Activists against the chemical argue that there are several alternatives that can be used  to  control  malaria.  But  the government insists that internal residue spraying  using  DDT  is  the  most  cost effective  malaria  control  method. Malaria  kills  more  than  100,000 Ugandans, most of them children, every year.
Source:The Monitor (Kampala)

Second Edition