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    Mosquitoes around the home can be reduced significantly by minimizing the amount of standing water available for mosquito breeding. Residents are urged to reduce standing water around the home in a variety of ways.


    The best way is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.This can be accomplished using personal protecting  while outdoors when mosquitoes are present. Treated bed nets should be used sleeping. Mosquito repellent should be used when outdoor.


    Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk of getting malaria. Pregnant women are particularly at risk of malaria. Children under 5 years are at high risk of malaria.


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Making an impact in Tanzania

International  Network  for the Demo-graphic  Evaluation  of  Populations  and their Health (INDEPTH) has contributed heavily  to health  development in  Africa, particularly  in  the area  of  malaria. The INDEPTH Effectiveness and Safety Studies of antimalarials (INESS) project was seen as a response  to  gaps  identified  by INDEPTH Network in malaria control efforts over the years and also as a follow up to the Network's Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance(MCTA) project which  ended  in  2010.  INESS  project was carried  out in Ghana  and Tanzania.

The project   aimed at addressing the problem of drug  administration  and  management of malaria drugs. The country coordinator of the INESS project in Tanzania Dr. Rashid Khatib at the Ifakara Health Institute in  Tanazania, spoke to the African    Media and  Malaria Research  Network  (AMMREN)  correspondent, Mbarwa Kivuyo on the project and other malaria activities currently  going on at the Institute.

AMMREN: What major malaria activities have been carried out here in the past few years?
A good example is the Malaria Clinical Trial Alliance (MCTA) under which many clinical trials have been taking place in Bagamoyo. The  popular  ones  are  the RTS,S  malaria vaccine candidate whose phase three results were announced in November 2012, and the Artesunate  mefloquine  combination  drug (ASMQ) – an antimalarial drug trial.

AMMREN: Any others?
Another  landmark project  is The  INDEPTH Effectiveness and  Safety  Studies (INESS), started in  2009  with  a  sub-grant from INDEPTH Network. It is aimed at developing and maintaining a  Phase  IV  Effectiveness Studies Platform at Ifakara and Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS) in southern Tanzania. It also uses the platform to assess the effectiveness and safety of new malaria treatments and its determinants in real life health systems, from these two HDSS sites.

AMMREN: Besides these which other studies can you identify?
 Other malaria research activities taking place right  now  at IHI  sites  include  the ACT Consortium  IMPACT  II  studies, Malaria  in pregnancy consortium (MIPAD) and  severe disease  in  children.  There  is  a  range  of entomological  studies  in  Ifakara,  Dar es Salaam  and  Bagamoyo, clinical  trials and sporozoite studies in  Bagamoyo,  ACCESS project which   measured  access  by rural communities to antimalarial drugs. Another study  looks at the ACT efficacy  in  Rufiji District.

AMMREN: What did this entail?
This is a behavioural change communication intervention implemented in Rufiji seeking to address  low patient  access  to  ACTs  and insufficient treatment  providers behaviour that were demonstrated in the INESS studies to  be an impediment  to  achieving  optimal community benefits of ACTs. This project is funded  by Barcelona  Institute  for Global Health.

An essay competition involving  primary school pupils was  conducted  in June 2013. Winners  were  given  sport swear  and footballs/netballs.

AMMREN: Now what is INDEPTH's contribution to the development of malaria information data and system,  relevant for planning, policy formulation and control strategies in Tanzania?

All rare adverse events from malaria patients associated  with ACT that were collected in the INESS safety studies were shared with the public authorities in charge of drugs regulations  in Tanzania  and  with  WHO Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Centre in Uppsala. The  project  has  also  shared  the findings of the studies with all other important  stakeholders in Tanzania that will likely use  them  in policy  formulation  and planning control strategies  for the country. The  results  have  also  been  regionally  and globally shared  through  presentations  at regional and  global scientific and  research meetings and publications in peer reviewed international  journals. Through this form of dissemination there is a chance that  results from  the studies have  influenced malaria control policies and programs in  many countries in Africa.

AMMREN: What significant success stories would you like to share?
Our discovery that  the communities in our study areas do not benefits from ACTs as it could be due to inadequate effective coverage arising from low access, insufficient provider  behavior  and  insufficient  patient adherence convinced other donors to provide a  research  grant that  is  funding  another project  at  IHI that  is responding  to  those challenges. The study called “responding to ACT efficacy decay” is still running.

The evaluation platform that  has been built as a result of INESS study has attracted other drug  manufacturers to bring their  newly discovered   malaria  drugs for  phase four evaluation  using the  platform. This is very good.