Mosquitoes around the home can be reduced significantly by minimizing the amount of standing water available for mosquito breeding. Residents are urged to reduce standing water around the home in a variety of ways.
The best way is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.This can be accomplished using personal protecting while outdoors when mosquitoes are present. Treated bed nets should be used sleeping. Mosquito repellent should be used when outdoor.
International Network for the Demo-graphic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) has contributed heavily to health development in Africa, particularly in the area of malaria. The INDEPTH Effectiveness and Safety Studies of antimalarials (INESS) project was seen as a response to gaps identified by INDEPTH Network in malaria control efforts over the years and also as a follow up to the Network's Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance(MCTA) project which ended in 2010. INESS project was carried out in Ghana and Tanzania.
The project aimed at addressing the problem of drug administration and management of malaria drugs. The country coordinator of the INESS project in Tanzania Dr. Rashid Khatib at the Ifakara Health Institute in Tanazania, spoke to the African Media and Malaria Research Network (AMMREN) correspondent, Mbarwa Kivuyo on the project and other malaria activities currently going on at the Institute.
AMMREN: What major malaria activities have been carried out here in the past few years?
A good example is the Malaria Clinical Trial Alliance (MCTA) under which many clinical trials have been taking place in Bagamoyo. The popular ones are the RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate whose phase three results were announced in November 2012, and the Artesunate mefloquine combination drug (ASMQ) – an antimalarial drug trial.
AMMREN: Any others?
Another landmark project is The INDEPTH Effectiveness and Safety Studies (INESS), started in 2009 with a sub-grant from INDEPTH Network. It is aimed at developing and maintaining a Phase IV Effectiveness Studies Platform at Ifakara and Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS) in southern Tanzania. It also uses the platform to assess the effectiveness and safety of new malaria treatments and its determinants in real life health systems, from these two HDSS sites.
AMMREN: Besides these which other studies can you identify?
Other malaria research activities taking place right now at IHI sites include the ACT Consortium IMPACT II studies, Malaria in pregnancy consortium (MIPAD) and severe disease in children. There is a range of entomological studies in Ifakara, Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo, clinical trials and sporozoite studies in Bagamoyo, ACCESS project which measured access by rural communities to antimalarial drugs. Another study looks at the ACT efficacy in Rufiji District.
AMMREN: What did this entail?
This is a behavioural change communication intervention implemented in Rufiji seeking to address low patient access to ACTs and insufficient treatment providers behaviour that were demonstrated in the INESS studies to be an impediment to achieving optimal community benefits of ACTs. This project is funded by Barcelona Institute for Global Health.
An essay competition involving primary school pupils was conducted in June 2013. Winners were given sport swear and footballs/netballs.
AMMREN: Now what is INDEPTH's contribution to the development of malaria information data and system, relevant for planning, policy formulation and control strategies in Tanzania?
All rare adverse events from malaria patients associated with ACT that were collected in the INESS safety studies were shared with the public authorities in charge of drugs regulations in Tanzania and with WHO Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Centre in Uppsala. The project has also shared the findings of the studies with all other important stakeholders in Tanzania that will likely use them in policy formulation and planning control strategies for the country. The results have also been regionally and globally shared through presentations at regional and global scientific and research meetings and publications in peer reviewed international journals. Through this form of dissemination there is a chance that results from the studies have influenced malaria control policies and programs in many countries in Africa.
AMMREN: What significant success stories would you like to share?
Our discovery that the communities in our study areas do not benefits from ACTs as it could be due to inadequate effective coverage arising from low access, insufficient provider behavior and insufficient patient adherence convinced other donors to provide a research grant that is funding another project at IHI that is responding to those challenges. The study called “responding to ACT efficacy decay” is still running.
The evaluation platform that has been built as a result of INESS study has attracted other drug manufacturers to bring their newly discovered malaria drugs for phase four evaluation using the platform. This is very good.