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    Mosquitoes around the home can be reduced significantly by minimizing the amount of standing water available for mosquito breeding. Residents are urged to reduce standing water around the home in a variety of ways.


    The best way is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.This can be accomplished using personal protecting  while outdoors when mosquitoes are present. Treated bed nets should be used sleeping. Mosquito repellent should be used when outdoor.


    Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk of getting malaria. Pregnant women are particularly at risk of malaria. Children under 5 years are at high risk of malaria.


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By Adeleke Adeyemi, Nigeria
The world has come a  long way  since 1897 when Sir Ronald Ross, a British a rmy   s u r g e o n   w o r k i n g   i n T Secunderabad  India,  proved  that malaria  is ransmitted  by  mosquitoes.  Then  in  1900 Giovanni Battista Grassi, an Italian zoologist, showed  that  malaria  could  only  be ransmitted to humans by Anopheles (Greek “anofelís”:  good-for-nothing)  mosquitoes.

Ross  received  the  1902  Nobel  Prize  for Physiology  (or Medicine)  for  “his work  on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters he  organism  and  thereby  has  laid  the foundation  for  successful  research  on  this disease and methods of combating  it.”

Malaria (Latin “mal aria”: bad air) remains a major  public  health  problem,  causing  250 million cases of fever and approximately one million deaths annually, hence understanding
its historyfor literally unraveling its future is key  to  its defeat. Another malaria milestone  is about  to be unveiled with Paul Wiseman.

Paul Wiseman  is one highly popular professor in Canada.  Soon  he'll  also  be well-liked  in malaria-endemic  regions  of  the  world. An associate  professor  concurrently  at  the
Departments  of  Physics  and  Chemistry  of McGill  University,  Canada,  Wiseman obtained  his  PhD  in  Chemistry  from  the University of Western Ontario in 1995 before joining McGill  in  2001  after  post-doctoral fellowships  from  far  apart  Japan  and  the
United States of America.

Wiseman  is now  set  for  celebrity  status,  all around  the world. He has a novel  technique on display that holds the promise of eliminating malaria.

Wiseman's  research  team  developed  a radically new technique that uses lasers and non-linear  optical  effects  to  detect  malaria infection in human blood. The new technique
promises simpler, faster and far  less  labour-intensive detection of the malaria parasite in
blood  samples.

Malaria  is  a vector-borne  infectious disease most  common  in  tropical  and  subtropical
regions.  Most  of  the  fatalities  are  in  sub-Saharan  Africa,  where  the  resources  and
trained  personnel  currently  required  to accurately  diagnose  the  disease  are  most unavailable.

Current detection  techniques  require  trained technicians  to  stain  slides,  look  for  the parasite's  DNA  signature  under  the microscope, and then manually count all the visible  infected  cells,  a  laborious  process dependent  on  the  skill  and  availability  of trained analysts. The proposed new procedure is  a  radical  departure  from  the  traditional technique: it relies on a known optical effect called  third  harmonic  generation  (THG), which  causes  hemozoin  (a  crystalline substance  secreted  by  the  parasite)  to  glow
blue when light is shone directly on it by an infrared  laser.

“People who  are  familiar with music  know about  acoustic  harmonics,”  explains  Dr. Wiseman.  “You  have  a  fundamental  sound frequency  and  then  multiples  of  that frequency.  Non-linear  optical  effects  are similar:  if you shine an  intense  laser beam of a specific  frequency  on  certain  types  of materials,  you  generate  multiples  of  the
frequency. Hemozoin has a huge, non-linear optical  response  for  the  third harmonic, which causes  the blue glow.”

Dr. Wiseman looks forward to adapting well-established  existing  technologies  like  fibreoptic communications lasers and fluorescent cell sorters  to promptly move  the  technique
out of  the  laboratory and  into  the  field.

The  work  has  already  won  Wiseman  a Fessenden  Professor  in  Science  Innovation Award.  “We're  imagining  a  self-contained unit that could be used in clinics in endemic countries,”  Dr.  Wiseman  beams  with satisfaction.  “The  operator  could  inject  thecell  sample directly  into  the device, and  then  it would  come  up  with  a  count  of  the  total
number  of  existing  infected  cells  without manual  intervention.” Now,  that's music  to
the health of millions; best of all it's  to cost just  a  song,  a  pittance  compared  to  its

The  latest breakthrough promises  to change the known facts about malaria. Doctors will now need  less  than a minute  to detect malaria.

Researchers say it's going to be much cheaper and faster than other Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT), also known as “dip sticks,” now being used by doctors all over  the world  to detect malaria.

Currently used rapid diagnostic  tests diagnose malaria by checking for malarial parasites in the blood, but results are not always correct and can sometimes be misleading. If there are not sufficient parasites in the blood to show up  as  positive,  the  test  may  turn  out  as negative. Haemozoin  is a waste product of  the malarial parasite  in  the blood.

According  to  Biophysical  Journal,  “early results indicate that it could be as effective as the  rapid  diagnostic  tests,  making  it  a potentially viable alternative.”

Winner  of  two  teaching  awards  in  2007, Wiseman  has  been  hai led  for   his “extraordinary abilities as a  teacher” and as “a mentor  and  an  outstanding  role  model  for students and faculty alike.” He was awarded he  2009  Keith  Laidler Award  in  Physical Chemistry  by  the  Canadian  Society  for Chemistry.

Wiseman plays hockey and soccer when he's not  teaching  or  doing  research. No wonder he's  always  thinking  about  catching  things like the malaria parasite before they score and do  possibly  irreparable  damage,  especially with cheap goals.

A power forward at hockey, clearly Wiseman possesses above average offensive skills  for
tackling a  tough nut  like malaria. Given his proficiency on  ice playing hockey, he's well able to coolly deliver a crushing blow to the beast  that  has  persistently  defeated  the healthcare delivery system of many a nation as  a  recurrent  economic  burden.  The framework  of  Wiseman's  self-ordained mandate  on malaria  seems  large  enough  to
screen  the  disease  off  the  socio-economic radar  in not  too  long a  time. With his well-rounded  skill-set  and  mental  acumen,  it  is gratifying  to  be  introduced  to  this  power forward so desirable to have on the team and ntent on nailing malaria before  it  scores.

Third Edition